Thì Quá Khứ Đơn (Past Simple)- Cách sử dụng – Cấu trúc – Dấu hiệu nhận biết

Trong loạt bài viết tổng hợp 12 thì cơ bản trong ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh. Ngày hôm nay, xin giới thiệu tới các em thì quá khư đơn (Past Simple). Thì quá khứ đơn (Past Simple) là một trong những thì cơ bản nhất không thể bỏ qua trong tiếng Anh.

Thì quá khư đơn là một trong 12 thì cơ bản mà chúng ta sẽ cùng tìm hiểu và nghiên cứu nếu muốn thành thạo Tiếng Anh. Past simple là một trong những thì được sử dụng nhiều trong Tiếng Anh. Chính vì vậy, bạn cần nắm vững về cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết, cấu trúc câu để sử dụng chính xác nhé.

Nào, cùng tìm hiểu nhé!

Cách sử dụng thì quá khứ đơn trong Tiếng Anh

Thì quá khứ đơn (Past Simple) được dùng để diễn tả:

a. Hành động bắt đầu và đã kết thúc tại một thời điểm cụ thể trong quá khứ.

Ex:

Lan went shopping yesterday morning. –> (Sáng hôm qua Lan đi mua sắm).

He joined the company two years ago. –> Anh ấy vào công ty cách đây 2 năm.

The second word war ended in 1945. –> Chiến tranh thế giới thứ 2 kết thúc năm 1945.

He had a bike accident at the weekend. –> Anh ấy bị tai nạn xe đạp hồi cuối tuần.

He went home last Sunday. –> Anh ấy đã về nhà vào chủ nhật trước

My children came home late last night. –> Các con của tôi về nhà muộn đêm qua.

Với cách dùng này, bạn sẽ dễ dàng bắt gặp các trạng từ hoặc cụm trạng từ chỉ thời gian quá khứ:

Last week/ month, year/ night/ Monday/…ago, yesterday, On monday, in 2020…

b. Hành động đã xảy ra suốt một quảng thời gian trong quá khứ, nhưng nay đã hoàn toàn chấm dứt.

Ex:

He worked in that company for over ten Years. –> Anh ấy đã làm việc tại công ty đó hơn mười năm (Hiện nay anh ta không còn làm ở đó nữa).

The bomb exploded two months ago. –> Quả bom đã nổ hai tháng trước.

Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. –> Mozart đã viết hơn 600 bản nhạc.

When I was a boy, i lived on a farm –> Lúc nhỏ tôi sống ở trang trại.

c. Nhận thức, cảm xúc, thói quen hoặc hành động xảy ra thường xuyên trong quá khứ.

Ex.

We smelt smoke –> Chúng tôi ngửi thấy mùi khói.

I offer visited this place as a child. –> Khi còn nhỏ, tôi thường đến chỗ này.

d. Hai hoặc nhiều hành động xảy ra kế tiếp nhau trong quá khứ.

Ex:

She came home, switched on the computer and checked her e-mails. –> Cô ấy đã về nhà, bật máy tính và kiểm tra email.

When the bomb went off, the building collapsed. –> Khi quả bom phát nổ, tòa nhà đổ sập

She turned on her computer, read the message on Facebook and answered it. –> Cô ấy đã mở máy tính, đọc tin nhắn facebook và trả lời tin nhắn.

She drove into the car park, got out of the car, locked the doors, and walked toward the theater –> Cô ấy lái xe vào bãi đỗ, ra khỏi xe, khóa cửa rồi đi về phía rạp hát

Cấu trúc thì quá khứ đơn

a. Thể khẳng định (Affirmative form).

  • Đối với động từ be (was/ were).

(+) S + Was/ were + O.

ex:

I was absent from school yesterday –> Hôm qua tôi ngỉ học.

I was a student –> Tôi đã từng là một học sinh.

Were you happy with him? –> Bạn có hạnh phúc bên anh ấy không?

  • Đối với động từ thường.

(+) S + V (ed/vp1) + O/C

Ex:

They visited Ho Chi Minh museum yesterday –> Họ đã đến thăm bảo tàng Hồ Chí Minh.

I bought a car yesterday –> Tôi đã mua một chiếc xe hơi hôm qua

b. Thể phủ định (Negative form).

  • Đối với động từ tobe (was/ were), thêm not sau was/ were.

Was not <==> wasn’t. 

Were not <==> Weren’t

Ex:

They weren’t at home last night –> Tối qua họ không ở nhà.

  • Đối với động từ thường, dùng trợ động từ did.

Subject + did + not + verb (bare-inf)

ex:

I didn’t watch TV last night –> Tối qua tôi không xem ti vi.

c. Thể nghi vấn (Question form).

  • Đối với động từ be, đem was/ were lên đầu câu

Ex:

Was the train ten minutes late? –> Có phải trể chuyến tàu 10 phút không?

  • Đối với động từ thường, đặt trợ động từ did lên đầu câu.

Did + subject + Verb (bare-inf)…?

Ex: Did they finish their meal –> Họ đã ăn xong chưa?

Lưu ý (note)

Cách chia động từ ở quá khứ đơn (past tense).

  • Động từ có quy tắc (Regular verbs): Thêm ed vào sau động từ nguyên mẫu.

Ex:

Finish –> Finished.

Work –> Worked.

Study –> Studied.

Play –> Played.

Watch –> Watched.

Visit –> Visited.

  • Động từ bất quy tắc (Irregular verbs): Động từ ở cột 2 (V2 – past tense) trong bảng động từ bất quy tắc.

Ex:

See –> Saw.

Go –> Went

Write –> Wrote

Sing –> Sang

Run –> Run

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ trong tiếng Anh

Bất kỳ loại thì nào trong Tiếng Anh cũng có dấu hiệu nhận biết, và thì quá khứ đơn không phải ngoại lệ.

Bạn có thể dễ dàng nhận biết được thì quá khứ đơn như sau:

  • Trong câu có các từ như: yesterday, ago, last (week, year, month), in the past, the day before, với những khoảng thời gian đã qua trong ngày (today, this morning, this afternoon).
  • Sau as if, as though (như thể là), it’s time (đã đến lúc), if only, wish (ước gì), would sooner/ rather (thích hơn)

Ex:

Arsenal gave away tickets to their fans last week.–> Arsenal phát miễn phí vé cho người hâm mộ tuần trước.

I stayed at my mom’s home yesterday –> Tôi đã ở nhà mẹ tôi ngày hôm qua

We talked about their holiday in Ca Mau. –> Chúng tôi nói về kỳ nghỉ của họ ở Cà Mau

Bài tập về thì quá khứ trong Tiếng Anh

Để ghi nhớ hoàn toàn những kiến thức phía trên, bây giờ chúng ta hãy cùng vận dụng kiến thức để làm một bài tập nho nhỏ về chia động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn nhé. Bài tập có câu trúc rất cơ bản nên chắc chắn là bạn sẽ dễ dàng hoàn thành thôi.

I, Put the verbs into the correct form (simple past).

  1. Last year I (spend) my holiday in Ireland.
  2. It (be) great.
  3. I (travel) around by car with two friends and we (visit) lots of interesting places.
  4. In the evenings we usually (go) to a pub.
  5. One night we even (learn) some Irish dances.
  6. We (be) very lucky with the weather.
  7. It (not / rain) a lot.
  8. But we (see) some beautiful rainbows.
  9. Where (spend / you) your last holiday?

Correct answers

1 –> Spent.

2 –> Was.

3 –> traveled—-visited.

4 –> Went.

5 –> learned.

6 –> Were.

7 –> didn’t rain.

8 –> Saw

9 –> Did you spend

II, Complete the sentences using the past simple form of the verbs.

  1. I _____ at home all weekend. ( stay)
  2. Angela ______ to the cinema last night. (go)
  3. My friends ______ a great time in Nha Trang last year. (have)
  4. My vacation in Hue ______ wonderful. (be)
  5. Last summer I _____ Ngoc Son Temple in Ha Noi. (visit)
  6. My parents ____ very tired after the trip. ( be)
  7. I _______ a lot of gifts for my little sister. (buy)
  8. Lan and Mai _______ sharks, dolphins and turtles at Tri Nguyen aquarium.(see)
  9. Trung _____ chicken and rice for dinner. (eat)
  10. They ____ about their holiday in Hoi An. (talk)
  11. Phuong _____ to Hanoi yesterday. (return)
  12. We _____ the food was delicious.(think)
  13. Yesterday, I (go)______ to the restaurant with a client.
  14. We (drive) ______ around the parking lot for 20 mins to find a parking space.
  15. When we (arrive) ______ at the restaurant, the place (be) ______ full.
  16. The waitress (ask) ______ us if we (have) reservations.
  17. I (say), “No, my secretary forgets to make them.”
  18. The waitress (tell)______ us to come back in two hours.
  19. My client and I slowly (walk) ______ back to the car.
  20. Then we (see) ______ a small grocery store.
  21. We (stop) in the grocery store and (buy) ______ some sandwiches.
  22. That (be) ______ better than waiting for two hours.
  23. I (not go) ______ to school last Sunday.
  24. She (get) ______ married last year?
  25. What you (do) ______ last night? – I (do) ______ my homework.
  26. I (love) ______ him but no more.
  27. Yesterday, I (get) ______ up at 6 and (have) ______ breakfast at 6.30.
  28. They (buy ) ……………. that house last year.
  29. She (not go) …………. to school yesterday.
  30. That boy ( have ) …………… some eggs last night.

III, Simple Past

  1. She (spend) ____ all her money last week.
  2. Mum (not spend) ___________ any money on herself.
  3. I (lend) __________ my penknife to someone, but I can’t remember who it was now.
  4. John and his father (build) ___________ the cabin themselves last year.
  5. My parents (sell) ____________ the stereo at a garage sale.
  6. ___________You (tell) ___________ anyone about this yesterday?
  7. The unidentified plant (bear) ___________ gorgeous flowers.
  8. She (tear) ___________ the letter to pieces and threw it in the bin.
  9. He often (wear) ___________ glasses for reading.
  10. Before God He (swear) ___________ he was innocent
  11. Yesterday Clouds (creep) ___________ across the horizon, just above the line of trees.
  12. We both (sleep) ___________ badly that night.
  13. She (weep) ___________ for the loss of her mother.
  14. Jane (keep) ___________ the engine running.
  15. A huge wave (sweep) ___________ over the deck
  16. Mum (pay) ___________ for my driving lessons.
  17. He (lay) ___________ his hand on my shoulder.
  18. He (break) ___________ the biscuit in half and handed one piece to me.
  19. He (choose) ___________ his words carefully as he (speak) ¬___________.
  20. He …………………to the zoo last Sunday (go)
  21. She (not /watch)………………………………TV last night
  22. They (meet)…………………………their friends at the movie theater last week
  23. What……………you (do)…………………last night
  24. ……………………… they (buy)…………………a new car two days ago?
  25. We ………….. (have) a lot of homework yesterday.

IV, Use the correct form of the verbs:

Yesterday (be)………. Sunday, Nam (get)……………up at six. He (do) ………..his morning exercises. He (take) ……………a shower, (comb)…………..hair, and then he (have) ………….. breakfast with his parents. Nam (eat)…………  a bowl of noodles and (drink) ………a glass of milk for his breakfast. After breakfast, he (help) …………..Mom clean the table. After that, he (brush)………. his teeth, (put)………. on clean clothes, and (go)………… to his grandparents’ house. He (have) …………..lunch with his grandparents. He (return) to his house at three o’lock. He (do)…………..his homework. He (eat)………. dinner at 6.30. After dinner, his parents (take)………. him to the movie theater. It (be)……………a very interesting film. They (come) …………..back home at 9.30. Nam (go)………………. to bed at ten o’clock.

  1. What day was yesterday? –> …….
  2. What time did Nam get up? –> ….
  3. What did he do after breakfast? –> …
  4. Who did he have lunch with? –> …
  5. What time did he have dinner? –> …
  6. What time did Nam go to bed ? –> …

V. Use the Past form of the verbs:

  1. I (be)…………………………………a student 2 years ago.
  2. He (be)……………………………. a doctor two years ago.
  3. They (be)…………………………… farmers last year.
  4. Lan and Ba (be) …………………….nurses last year.
  5. It (be not)………………………. cold yesterday.
  6. She (be not)……………………a pupipl last week.
  7. This hat (be not) …………………….new yesterday.
  8. My parents (be not) …………………..teacchers two years ago.
  9. He (be not) ……………………..a mechanic last Monday.
  10. (Be)………………. he an engineer yesterday. No , he (be not)…………………
  11. (Be) ……………..It hot last week?
  12. The windows (be) ………………..open last Monday.
  13. (Be)…………….. you a teacher two years ago? Yes , I (be)……………..
  14. Where (be) ………………..Nam from yesterday?
  15. Why (be) ……………………….he unhappy last Tuesday?
  16. I (remember)…………………… your trip to Nha Trang two years ago.
  17. Ba (wear)……………………….. the cap all day yesterday.
  18. I (eat) ……………………..a lot of fish yesterday.
  19. Her aunt (take)…………………………….. her to see Cham Temple last year.
  20. Tuan (have)………………………… a new bike yesterday.
  21. She (not buy)……………………………. a new ruler yesterday?
  22. He (not talk)…………………………… with his parents about his vacation in Da Lat last year.
  23. They (not come)……………………………. school yesterday?
  24. The windows (not close)………………………. yesterday?
  25. We (not return) ………………………………..at home at 7 pm last Monday.
  26. She (not eat ) ………………………………………fish and crab yesterday.
  27. Lan (not go )…………………………… Ho Chi Minh city two years ago.
  28. My parents (not take)……………………………to Vung Tau last week.
  29. We (not have)………………………………..a lot of friends in Ha Noi.
  30. Lan and Hoa (be)……………………………… your school two years ago?
  31. What they (play) ………………………….last week?
  32. What Hoa (try)……………………………………………… on yesterday?
  33. Who (talk) ………………………………to about the film on TV last Monday?
  34. Where they (stop) ……………………………….on their way back last Sunday?
  35. What the student (wear)……………………………….. at school two years ago?
  36. Where you (put) the cake yesterday?
  37. What time you (leave )…………………………….home for school yesterday?
  38. What Ba(receive)……………………………from Liz last week?
  39. How long he (do)……………………….this hat yesterday?
  40. What time you (go)……………………………..to bed last night?
  41. You (go) ……………………………..to Dalat for last tet vacation/
  42. He (have) ……………………………..a lot of friends in Ho Chi Minh city 3 years ago?
  43. His uncle (take)………………………..him to see Tri Nguyen aquarium last week?
  44. Liz (buy)……………………… a lot of souvenirs yesterday?
  45. They (put) ………………………the fish in the big bag last Sunday?
  46. They (eat)……………………….meat in her meals in Vung Tau yesterday?
  47. I(wear) the …………………….cap with a dolphin om it yesterday/
  48. Liz (teach)…………………………… Ba some English last week/
  49. Bad and Tan (remember) …………………their trip to Nha Trang last month?
  50. Nam (return) ………………………..to Ha Noi last week?
  51. I (go)……………………….to Ben Thanh market last Monday
  52. He (get)…………………………up at 7 o’clock yesterday.
  53. What time you (go) …………………to bed last night?
  54. She ( not go)…………………………….to work last weekend.
  55. Lan (meet)……………………………her at the party 3 years ago.
  56. Last summer vacation,Mom (not buy)………………………..me a new buy?
  57. When he (leave)…………………………. for work last week.
  58. What you (do)…………………………… yesterday?
  59. We (begin)………………………………to learn English 3 years ago.
  60. She (be)…………………………………..an engineer last week.
  61. Lan (be not)……………………………..at home yesterday.
  62. He (wear) ……………………………….the shirt last week.
  63. They (be ) …………………………..here yesterday.
  64. You (go) ………………………….to school yesterday?
  65. Tam (be)……………………………….. at home last night? – Yes, he (be).
  66. Where he (go)…………………………………. yesterday?
  67. I (be)………………………………….. sick last night.
  68. Why you (not come )………………………… to class yesterday?
  69. We (be) …………………………..in the library yesterday.
  70. Hoa (buy) ……………………………..a lot of things for her birthday party.
  71. What time you (leave) ………………………………….home for school yesterday?

VI. Write the questions with “Did…….?”and give the answer with “Yes / No:

They played soccer yesterday afternoon

  • Did they play soccer yesterday afternoon?
  • Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t.
  1. He sent a letter to his penpal last week.
  2. She taught us English last year.
  3. They did their homework carefully.
  4. The Robinsons bought a lot of souvenirs.
  5. Tourist ate seafood at that famous restaurant.
  6. The teacher gave her students a lot of homeworks.
  7. His uncle took him to se Cham temple.
  8. Liz bought a lot of souvenirs.
  9. They put the fish in a big bag.
  10. Ba wore the cap with a dolphin on it.

VII. Supply the correct verb form, positive or negative.

1/ It stopped raining, so I _____ off my raincoat. (take)
2/ The novel wasn’t very interesting. I _____ it very much. (enjoy).
3/ We went to Kate’s house but she _____ at home. (be)
4/ She was in a hurry, so she _____ time to phone you. (have)
5/ The story was very funny but nobody _____ . (laugh)
6/ Tom was very hungry. He _____ like a horse. (eat)
7/ The room was so cold, therefore we _____ well. (sleep)
8/ It was hard work carrying the bags. They _____ very heavy. (be)
9/ The window was open and a bird _____ into the room. (fly)
10/ It was very hot, so I _____ on the air-conditioner. (turn)

VIII. Write questions of the conversation. Use the cue words in brackets.

Nam is asking Ba about his recent holiday.

Nam: ………………………..? (Where/go?)
Ba: I went to Nha Trang.

Nam: (1) …………………………? (go/ alone?)
Ba: No, I didn’t. I went with my parents.

Nam: (2) ……………………………….? (How/ travel?)
Ba: We traveled by train.

Nam: (3) …………………………….? (How long/ stay there?)
Ba: We stayed there for a week.

Nam: (4) Did you stay at a hotel? (stay/at a hotel?)
Ba: Yes, we did. We stayed at Thang Loi Hotel.

Nam: (5) ……………………………………? (What/do /morning?)
Ba: In the early morning, I went to the beach to swim and sunbathe.
Nam: (6) ………………………….? (the weather/ fine?)
Ba: Yes. The weather was fine in the morning, but sometimes it rained in t he evening.
Nam: (7) ……………………………..? (food/ good?)
Ba: Yes, the food was delicious, especially sea food. But they were quite expensive.
Nam: ………………………………………….? (buy/ souvenirs/ Nha Trang?)

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